Why you should know the Church Fathers and how to do it (2023)

There were a thousand things they had to figure out, like inventing a vocabulary to describe who they were and what they did and how they went about doing it.

When I was a Lutheran seminarian we rarely looked at the Church Fathers, almost never. So it was not surprising when a Lutheran bishop, slated to preach on the feast day of the Cappadocian Fathers before a Lutheran gathering of pastors who had invited him, opened his remarks saying he literally did not know who they were, but he’d make the best of it anyway. He should have read Rod Bennett’s two books. Bennett had yet to write them, though, so maybe the bishop gets a pass.

But still, if any Protestant community should be reading the Church Fathers with deference and appreciation it is the Lutherans. The Lutheran defense for their reforms (the term “reform” of course is disputed) was premised on their intention to restore the Church to her original simplicity. For every assertion made in the Augsburg Confession of 1530, they usually found and footnoted a Church Father who had their back, someone they believed bolstered the very thing the Reformers were saying. They argued that in their churches they had made only such changes as to restore something even older now lost, or eliminate something that had crept in through the years that was not in any way sanctioned evangelically. To read the Confession, so said Lutheran apologists, was to read in part a commentary on the early Fathers.

The Lutheran bishop noted above, with or without Bennett, betrayed his ignorance not only of early Church history, but also of the founding document of his own denomination.

But if Lutherans are neglectful of the Church Fathers (and they are), lay Catholics (I’m now one of those) in many ways probably match the Lutherans today. We just don’t know enough of our own Church history and we certainly know too little of the Fathers.

The Church Fathers are that array of pastors, bishops, and theologians writing after the Apostles but before 325, the year the Nicene Creed was formulated. They are also known as the Ante-Nicene Fathers (before the Nicene council), Generally speaking, they are the “second generation” of Christians. Their writings can be accessed through a simple Google search and their work is published in several collected volumes available at, say, Amazon.

(Video) Overview of Everything You Need to Know about the Church Fathers

Some of the Fathers are very close to original witnesses. Ignatius of Antioch was said to have been mentored by the Apostle John. As a defense against those few contemporary outlier historians who make a career of questioning the historical existence of Jesus, I have yet to see even one of them deal with the historicity of actual witnesses as reported in history outside the Gospels.

What we read from the Fathers is what the Early Church was saying about itself and how it came to terms with what had happened in Jesus, and what it meant for the life of the world, and how to say all that in ways faithful to their memory of Christ.

There were a thousand things they had to figure out, like inventing a vocabulary to describe who they were and what they did and how they went about doing it. By the close of the 1st century they certainly knew they were a Church and that it was Catholic. But to arrive at this they first had to distinguish themselves from what they were not. They were not a Roman burial and funeral society. Such groups met periodically, shared meals, administered internal discipline, and debated what to do with non-paying members who reneged on their pledge to aid fellow society members in burial expenses. Or how were Christians different from Roman supper clubs, for that matter?Tertullian (not in either book; that’s another story) preferred that Christians call themselves a collegium (or simply “association”; even “club” would work). Tertullian wanted common words that were intelligible even to anyone not a Christian.

When Pliny the Younger, governor of Bithynia-Pontus (modern Turkey) in 125 AD, was confronted with a strange group of people who refused to give honor to the emperor, Trajan, he didn’t know who they were or what they did or what to do with them. They met, ate a meal, and sang a few hymns to someone called Christ “as to a god.” He questioned some under torture (including a couple of women called deaconesses) and gave the whole group of them three opportunities to disavow Christ. Those who refused were executed. These things had to be worked out.

(Video) Church Fathers 101 (Part 1 of 3)

We also find from the Fathers the earliest discussions of the nature and relationship between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; about the particular character and nature of Jesus; about church structure and governance. All these things and more flow down to us, but they began with the Fathers. From the Church Fathers we know of prayers for the dead, a beginning development of a doctrine of purgatory, the early reverence for Mary, Mother of Our Lord, and the absolute insistence on the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Mostly, everything that is the Catholic Church today traces its earliest roots to the Church Fathers.

Rod Bennett’s two books — Four Witnesses: The Early Church in Her Own Words and Four More Witnesses: Further Testimony from Christians Before Constantine — are an introduction to a few of the most important Church Fathers.

He includes Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch (who made first real argument for a single office of bishop as Catholics have since come to understand it), and Justin, called the Martyr (for reasons you should be able to figure out), who gave us a very early description of Christian worship (155 AD) which I find not at all dissimilar to the Mass of today; and Irenaeus of Lyons, the legendary slayer of heresies, who was noted especially for combating a whack-a-mole heresy called Gnosticism (actually a collection of heresies still around).

Bennett’s second volume (written nearly 20 years after his first — he was writing other things between the two) introduces Clement of Rome, perhaps the first bishop following Peter or maybe the fourth, sources differ. Clement is the author of the first and second Letters of Clement to the Corinthians. They were reprimands, actually, which gives us still more insight to the many Corinthian squabbles that so annoyed St. Paul in his two letters to Corinth.

(Video) More Church Fathers You Should Know (Part 2 of 3)

Bennett includes another Clement, this one of Alexandria (look him up). Another is Hermes, author of the Shepherd of Hermes. The Shepherd was a popular book and a contender for inclusion in the New Testament. His use of Greek grammar was as unlearned as it was, um, inventive. His writing is long-winded and repetitive. I find him difficult to read whether in Greek or in English. What he produced, though, might be called a spiritual how-to book (my phrase) for successful Christian living. It’s full of helpful commandments (12 as I recall), parables, warnings, and advice. It is heavy in prophetic allegory and, despite its many weaknesses, it was popular in the Church well into the 4th century, largely I suppose because the language was simple and direct.

Bennett also includes Hippolytus of Rome, the first antipope. It’s an embarrassing tale. Hippolytus was passed over for election as bishop and the job went to an ex-slave, Callistus, who was also an ex-con having once been convicted of embezzlement. Hippolytus went off in a huff, or in the words of a perhaps contemporary ditty, “had a cow when Callistus took the prow.”

Of Callistus the First we know little of his history. What is known was recorded largely by his critics, few of whom even pretended to objectivity. He became an archdeacon in Rome, manager of the church cemeteries, and was made bishop of the Roman church when the post fell vacant. His main trouble came from Hippolytus and Tertullian, others too, who took strong objection to Callistus having granted communion, after due penance, to those who had committedadulteryand fornication. Hippolytus reconciled with the Church before his martyrdom, an automatic conferral of sainthood.

Hippolytus’ real contribution, and the reason he’s included among the Church Fathers, was his liturgical work for the Church, not only the Mass but also for occasional services like baptism, ordination (deacon, presbyter, and bishop), and others. To look at his liturgies is to see real theological elegance, a smooth, sleek, and unadorned Latin. His work is still revered and still in use. Hippolytus’ Eucharistic Prayer (c.215 AD) is the foundation for Eucharistic Prayer II in today’s Roman Rite, and Lutherans included the Hippolytian prayer in the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978) for optional use. As a Lutheran parish pastor I used it every Christmas Eve. Some things just sound like Christmas, you know.

(Video) Where to Start with Reading the Church Fathers

Bennett has produced a remarkable and accessible introduction to the Church Fathers and he chose his subjects wisely, each being a theologian still quoted by today’s theologians. Bennett started his Christian life as a Baptist and while still a Baptist fell in love with the Church Fathers. It was the weight of their witness that ultimately swayed him to the Church. He should write a third book. And when that is done, he can pick up some of the Post-Nicene Fathers.



The Augsburg Confession
The Christians as the Romans Saw Themby Robert Wilkins (Yale University Press, 1984, 2003)

(Video) Introducing: The Early Church Fathers


Before entering seminary and becoming a Lutheran pastor (before becoming Roman Catholic),Russell E. Saltzmanwas a newspaper reporter, press secretary to a member of Congress, and deputy secretary of the state of Kansas. He is a member of St. Theresa North, Kansas City, MO.


What are the three important groups of Church Fathers? ›

The earliest Church Fathers, those of the first two generations after the [[Apostle|Apostles of Christ, are usually called the Apostolic Fathers. Famous Apostolic Fathers include Clement of Rome (c. 30-100), Ignatius of Antioch, and Polycarp of Smyrna.

Why do we need to study Church Fathers? ›

When we study Church history, we get perspective on where we are now and how we serve as a link to the future. It grounds our identity and purpose within this larger story, giving us a firm anchor in God's plan of salvation.

What was the main responsibility of the Church Fathers? ›

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers who established the intellectual and doctrinal foundations of Christianity.

What is the study of the church fathers? ›

Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers. The names derive from the combined forms of Latin pater and Greek patḗr (father).

Who is a church father and what are the 5 characteristics? ›

A church father is a great and holy leader who arose to lead the Church, explain the Faith, and meet the unique challenges posed by the different heresies. The church fathers shared the following characteristics: orthodoxy in doctrine, holiness, notoriety, approval by the church, and antiquity.

What was the major contribution of the Church Fathers to the canon answer using complete sentences? ›

The major contribution made by the church fathers to the canon was their use and referral to the Gospels and to the letters of the Apostles as Scripture, inspired by God. Clement of Rome quoted from many of the Epistles.

Why do you think it is important to study church history? ›

It exposes us to some of the issues faced by the church in every age. It helps us see further than we naturally can on our own. It gives us insight into our own culture. It provides warnings about what to look out for and what not to do.

Why is it important to study Christianity? ›

Our shared values bind us together. More than this though, Christianity positively influences a person's character, guides our actions and behaviour, and maintains healthy wellbeing. All profound lessons for our young students. Christianity teaches us responsibility, service and encourages us to help others.

What is the importance of church? ›

The Church helps us to maintain organization, teachings, and to create a support system for members. By establishing a church, the Lord ensures that the correct doctrines are taught. The Church provides members with revelations, standards, and guidelines that help us live as Christ would have us live.

What did the early church fathers teach? ›

The fathers generally speaking must meet four criteria to be considered by the church as a father: They must teach Orthodox doctrine. Display holiness of life. Church approval.

Who is the true head of the Church? ›

Head of the Church is a title given in the New Testament to Jesus. In Catholic ecclesiology, Jesus Christ is called the invisible Head the Heavenly Head, while the Pope is called the visible Head or the Earthly Head. Therefore, the Pope is often unofficially called the Vicar of Christ by the faithful.

What are the 7 precepts of the Church? ›

These are:
  • to observe certain feasts.
  • to keep the prescribed fasts.
  • to attend Mass on Sundays and Holy Days.
  • to confess once a year.
  • to receive Holy Communion during paschal time.
  • to pay tithes.
  • to abstain from any act upon which an interdict has been placed entailing excommunication.

What was the importance of the writings of the Church Fathers quizlet? ›

The writings of the church fathers were an addition to the New Testament. The Didache contained numerous quotations from Matthew and Luke and declares them to be divinely inspired. Clement quoted from many of the Epistles. The church fathers believed the New Testament to be inspired by God.

What are the duties of a church mother? ›

1 Church Mothers: Strengthening Families

Representing stability and godly reverence to their faith, church mothers may help guide young women away from behaviors that can cause troubled home lives. They model and teach acceptable behavior, and they often maintain high positions as church mothers for all their lives.

Who are the Church Fathers that give their ideas about sacraments? ›

The period from the end of the apostolic era about the year 90-450 was a very rich one in terms of sacramental theology, Justin, Tertullian, Cyril of Jerusalem, Basil of Caesarea, Cyril of Alexandria, Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo and many others thought, wrote and preached widely on sacraments especially ...


1. Embrace the Faith of our Fathers
(St. Paul Center)
2. Ancient Church Fathers on the AntiChrist, and Timing of the Tribulation
(EverythingNewUnderThe Son)
3. Who are the "Fathers of the Church"? (Patristics 101)
(Brody Stewart)
4. Didache: What is it? (Church Fathers)
(Theology Academy)
5. Scott Hahn & The Bible and the Church Fathers
(St. Paul Center)
6. Steve Ray: The Church Fathers
(Franciscan University of Steubenville)
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