A Walk-through Kenya's New (2-6-6-3) Education Curriculum: Subjects to be Taught | Bunifu ERP | An automation software for Schools & Colleges (2022)

It is a wrap for Kenya’s current education curriculum, the 8-4-4 system of education which was first implemented in 1985, as the new 2-6-6-3 education curriculum framework is introduced.

The curriculum reform in Kenya was necessitated by the need to have every Kenyan engaged and empowered to become an ethical citizen. This is envisioned to be achieved through providing every Kenyan learner with world class standards in the skills and knowledge that they deserve, and which they need in order to thrive in the 21st century.

This shall be accomplished through the provision of excellent teaching, school environments, resources and a sustainable visionary curriculum that provides every learner with seamless, competency based on high quality learning that values every learner.

So far the Government through the Ministry of Education and the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) has selected about 500 schools where the new curriculum will be tested starting 2018.

Basic Education Curriculum Framework Pillars

A Walk-through Kenya's New (2-6-6-3) Education Curriculum: Subjects to be Taught | Bunifu ERP | An automation software for Schools & Colleges (1)

Basic education model of new curriculum 2-6-6-3 system in Kenya

The basic education curriculum framework vision and mission are supported by three important pillars; values, theoretical approaches and guiding principles.

Organization structure of Basic Education of 2-6-6-3 curriculum

Basic Education will be organized into three (3) levels: Early Years Education, Middle School Education and Senior School.

1) Early Years Education (5 years): Pre-primary and Lower primary

This shall comprise two (2) years of pre-primary and three (3) years of lower primary school education

Pre-primary Education

All learners are expected to begin their education at this level. It is a two year programme.

Subjects for Pre-primary

  1. Language Activities
  2. Mathematical Activities
  3. Environmental Activities
  4. Psycho-motor and Creative Activities
  5. Religious Education Activities

Note: Digital literacy, pertinent and contemporary issues will be integrated across all Subjects.

Lower Primary

The learners from pre-primary will join lower primary in grade 1 at about 6 years of age and spend 3 years in this part of Early Years Education before proceeding to middle school at the end of grade 3.

The following will be the Subjects in lower primary


  1. KiSwahili Language Activities/Kenya Sign Language for learners who are deaf
  2. English Language Activities
  3. Indigenous Language Activities
  4. Mathematical Activities
  5. Environmental Activities
  6. Hygiene and Nutrition Activities
  7. Religious Education Activities
  8. Movement and Creative Activities

Note: ICT will be a learning tool in all areas; Pertinent and contemporary issues will be mainstreamed in all Subjects.

2). Middle School Education 6 years (Upper Primary and Lower Secondary)

This shall comprise three (3) years of upper primary and three (3) years of lower secondary education.

Upper Primary

Upper primary is part of middle school. It is a three year programme where learners are exposed to a broad curriculum and given an opportunity for exploration and experimentation.

Subjects for Upper Primary

  1. English
  2. Kiswahili or Kenya Sign Language (for learners who are deaf)
  3. Home Science
  4. Agriculture
  5. Science and Technology
  6. Mathematics
  7. Religious Education (CRE/IRE/HRE)
  8. Creative Arts
  9. Physical and Health Education
  10. Social Studies


11. Foreign Languages (Arabic, French, German, Mandarin)

Note: ICT will be cross cutting in all subjects; Pertinent and contemporary issues and life skills will be mainstreamed in all Subjects and a pastoral program of instruction will be conducted once a week.

Secondary Education

Secondary education is organized into two levels namely, Lower Secondary (Grades 7, 8 and 9) and Senior School (Grades 10, 11 and 12).

Graduates of primary school Grade 6 shall join lower secondary at Grade 7. Lower secondary will expose the learner to a broad based curriculum to enable them to explore their own abilities, personality and potential as a basis for choosing subjects according to career paths of interest at the senior school.

At Grade 4 learners will be introduced to the optional subjects offered at upper primary so as to make informed choices at Grade 7. Learners in lower secondary will undergo a rigorous career guidance programme and be exposed to the related subjects to enable them to make informed choices as they transit to senior school.

Subjects for Lower Secondary School

The Subjects are in two categories; core and optional subjects. At this level, a broad based curriculum is offered to enable the learner to explore their own interests and potential as a basis for choosing subjects according to career paths of interest at senior level.

Core Subjects

Learners will be required to take the 12 core subjects provided.

  1. English
  2. Kiswahili or Kenyan Sign Language for learners who are deaf
  3. Mathematics
  4. Integrated Science
  5. Health Education
  6. Pre-Technical and Pre-Career Education
  7. Social Studies
  8. Religious Education – learners choose one of the following:
    Christian Religious Education
    Islamic Religious Education
    Hindu Religious Education
  9. Business Studies
  10. Agriculture
  11. Life Skills Education
  12. Sports and Physical Education

Note: ICT will be a delivery tool for all Subjects.

Optional Subjects

Learners are provided with an opportunity to choose a minimum of one and a maximum of two subjects according to personality, abilities, interests and career choices from the list provided.

  1. Visual Arts
  2. Performing Arts
  3. Home Science
  4. Computer Science
  5. Foreign Languages:
    i. German
    ii. French
    iii. Mandarin
    iv. Arabic
  6. Kenyan Sign Language
  7. Indigenous Languages

3). Senior School

Senior School comprises three years of education targeted at learners in the age bracket of 15 to 17 years and lays the foundation for further education and training at the tertiary level and the world of work. It marks the end of Basic Education as defined in the Education Act, 2013.

Learners exiting this level are expected to be “empowered, engaged and ethical citizens” ready to participate in the socio-economic development of the nation.

The learner entering this level shall have had opportunities at lower secondary to explore their own potential, interests and personality and is therefore ready to begin specialisation in a career path of choice. The specialisation entails choosing to pursue studies in one of the three pathways available in senior school. He or she can choose the Arts and Sports Science, Social Sciences or Science Technical Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pathway.

Schools will be specialised institutions that will provide opportunities for learners to focus in a field of their choice as well as form a foundation for further education and training and gaining employable skills. Senior schools will be required to therefore organise open days to enable learners and parents to glean the information necessary for effective decision- making. Additionally, a robust parental empowerment and engagement programme will be necessary to strengthen the involvement of parents in this process.

In Kenya, each senior school is expected to make informed decisions with regards to the pathway of choice based on the requisite infrastructure that would ensure development of the competencies identified in that pathway. The three pathways are: (1) Arts and Sports Science (2) Social Sciences (3) Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

Within the three pathways there are various tracks. Schools can also decide to offer one or more track in the pathway depending on the ability to acquire the infrastructure necessary for acquisition of the identified competencies

Education for Learners with Special Educational Needs

A Walk-through Kenya's New (2-6-6-3) Education Curriculum: Subjects to be Taught | Bunifu ERP | An automation software for Schools & Colleges (3)

Learners with special needs new curriculum model in Kenya

Learners with special educational needs, like any other learner, have potential that needs to be nurtured. The special needs education curriculum model illustrated below indicates curriculum provision for learners with special needs.

Learners with special educational needs who may follow the regular curriculum may include those with:

  1. Visual Impairment
  2. Hearing Impairment
  3. Physical Handicap
  4. Mild Cerebral Palsy
  5. Learning Disabilities
  6. Autism
  7. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
  8. Communication Disorders and the

Gifted and Talented
Learners with Special Needs Who May Not have their needs met from just following the Regular Curriculum
Learners with special needs who may not have their needs met from just following the regular curriculum may include those with:

  1. Mental Handicap
  2. Deaf blindness
  3. Severe Autism
  4. Severe Cerebral Palsy
  5. Multiple Handicaps
  6. Profound Disabilities

Notice that this new curriculum comes with a range of changes in terms of study levels, classes and so to the subjects taught. Therefore, for schools that have had their processes automated may have to restructure their systems if the software they use is flexible, otherwise they may have to procure new ones that will be configured to suit the new era.

However, for a software likeBunifu ERP for schools and colleges, it is quite flexiblefor the existing users as they don’t have to acquire another oneto accommodate the new curriculum, all they need to is to re-configure their system and it will be business as usual for them in all the departments where it is in use.

Here is the entire 145 page curriculum framework document. What we have put up here is a summary of what is contained in the document. Download below and learn more.

Check if your school is among the schools shortlisted for the new education system pilot study: Download PDF.

Adapted from Kenya Yote


What curriculum framework is used in Kenya? ›

The Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KIDC) developed the Basic Education Curriculum Framework in 2016, with a vision to enable every Kenyan to become an engaged, empowered and ethical citizen.

What are the pillars of basic education curriculum framework? ›

The basic education curriculum framework vision and mission are supported by three important pillars; values, theoretical approaches and guiding principles. conflict, high inequality, and low provision of public goods and services.

What is the 8.4 4 system of education in Kenya? ›

The 8-4-4 System educational program is a system of education in Kenya with eight years of primary education, four years of secondary education and four years of university education.

What is the new curriculum in Kenya? ›

Kenya adopted a new education system – the competency based curriculum (CBC) – in 2018, with the first cohort recently concluding fifth grade. In May this year, it is expected that they will resume learning for their final year of primary school, before transitioning to junior secondary school.

Who develops Kenyan curriculum? ›

KICD (Formerly KIE -Kenya Institute of Education) is Kenya's curriculum development hub- they develop syllabuses and approve the curricula for practically everything that's taught in Kenya (except Universities). KICD is a state corporation and gets its mandate from the K.I.C.D Act No. 4 (2013) of the Kenyan laws.

What are 5 pillars of education? ›

  • Learning to know. Knowledge, values and skills for respecting and searching for knowledge and wisdom. ...
  • Learning to be. Knowledge, values and skills for personal and family well-being. ...
  • Learning to live together. ...
  • Learning to do. ...
  • Learning to transform one self and society.

What are the four principles of curriculum? ›

These four basic principles include:
  • Defining appropriate learning objectives.
  • Establishing useful learning experiences.
  • Organizing learning experiences to have a maximum cumulative effect.
  • Evaluating the curriculum and revising those aspects that did not prove to be effective.

What are the objectives of a curriculum framework? ›

Its main objectives are to:

- Establish the principles on which decisions regarding school curriculum are based. - Indicate the values that are important to education and are to be encouraged and modelled. - Establish the essential competencies and skills needed for successful lifelong learning.

Is 844 better than IGCSE? ›

There are several advantages of GCSE system over 8-4-4 system, which are explained below. Unlike 8—4-4 system where students are only taught how to pass exams, British system entails class work, extra curricula activities and talent enhancement.

What is the current education system in Kenya? ›

The national educational system consists of three levels: eight years of compulsory primary education (beginning at age six), four years at the secondary level, and four years of higher education. The government provides free primary and secondary education.

Why CBC is better than 844? ›

The differences between 8-4-4 and CBC? The difference is that their is a change of emphasis from the tradition of chalk-and-talk teaching, to focusing on the student, by learning in groups and not just memorizing facts, but developing competencies, and understanding core values and important issues.

What is competency based curriculum in Kenya? ›

Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) is where learning is based on the needs and potential of. individual learners under a flexible framework and parameters that move and shift according to. the learners' demands.

What do you mean by curriculum framework? ›

A curriculum framework is an organized plan or set of standards or learning outcomes that defines the content to be learned in terms of clear, definable standards of what the student should know and be able to do. A curriculum framework is part of an outcome-based education or standards based education reform design.

What is the importance of K to 12 curriculum framework? ›

The K to 12 program promotes global competency by accelerating mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries. The new curriculum allows students to choose between three tracks which are the Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, and the Sports and Arts strand.

Why CBC was introduced in Kenya? ›

The CBC aims to be a more student-based system, with more focus on the ability of the student to self- learn and develop relevant skills requisite for any engagement carried out. This way of thinking is perhaps informed by the opening up of the world, which has been spurred by the internet explosion.

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